To investigate the pollution status of heavy metals in the surface sediments from rivers in Beijing Central District, we used the methods of the Geoaccumulation Index, principal component analysis, and Potential Ecological Risk Index to evaluate the pollution level, pollution sources, and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals including Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, and Cu, respectively. The results showed that the average contents of the heavy metals were as follows: Hg 0.670 mg?kg-1, As 6.01 mg?kg-1, Pb 31.1 mg?kg-1, Cr 63 mg?kg-1, Cd 0.29 mg?kg-1, Mn 277 mg?kg-1, Cu 45 mg?kg-1. The descending order by the average Geoaccumulation Index was Hg(1.49) > Cr(0.34) > Cu(0.24) > Cd(0.14) > Pb(-0.77) > As(-1.41) > Mn(-2.30), showing that the surface sediments were mainly polluted by Hg, Cr, Cu, and Cd elements, with Hg at moderate pollution level and Cr, Cu, Cd at mild to moderate pollution level. The pollution mainly came from three sources: traffic, vehicle repairing, and heating coal combustion. The descending order by the average Potential Ecological Risk Coefficient was Hg(357) > Cd(80) > Cu(13) > As(9) > Pb(7) > Cr(4) > Mn(2), and the average Potential Ecological Risk Index of the sediments was 472, suggesting strong ecological hazard of the sediments in general.