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    2020,18(2):1-13, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The Qingshui River Basin in the upperr eaches of the Hai River is lo cated in the semi-arid and semi-humid transition zone of north China. In this basin, water resources are scarce, and the ecological environment is extremely fragile. Both water resources and ecological environment are highly sensitive to climate chang and human activities. The analysis of characterist ics and driing forces of runoff evolution under changing climate is of great significance for the sustainable use of water resources, and for maintaining the ecological barrier function for the capitalregion. To identify the variability of runoff in Qingshui River, long term daily runoff data from 1950-2016 for the Zhangjiakou and Taolaimiao stations were analyzed. To quantify the runoff evolution and its hydrological response to climate change and human activities, order cluster analysis, wavelet analysis and double accumulatio curve methods were applied. The results are as follows; 1. The mean annual runoff in the Qingshui River Basin decreased significantly in the last 70 years, and the average runoff depth decreased at a rate of 0.6 mm/a. The monthly runoff also decreased significantly, especially in the spring and summer flood seasons; 2. An abrupt change was observed in 1979 in the Qingshui River, while the first and second main periods of runoff evolution were 27 a and 8 a, respectively. 3. The non-uniformity of runoff distribution increased significantly during the year, and spring floods ( March-April) account for the entire year. The proportion of total runoff has increased, while the proportion of summer flood ( July to August) in the total runoff has decreased. 4. The results of double mass curve analysis indicated that human activities were the main driving factors for the runoff variability, accounts for approximately 89% .
    2020,18(2):14-21, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is widely used in resolving the multi-objective and multi-indicator decision making problems in published literature. In this study ,TOPSIS was applied to evaluate the performance of precipitation simulations obtained from 18 General Circulation Models (GCMs) over the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin. Firstly, six indicators, such as mean value, normalized root mean square error, coefficient of variation, Mann-Kenda ll trend analysis statistic value, coefficient of inhomogeneity and Pearson correlation coefficient were used in the evaluation process. Secondly, the weight of each indicator was determined by using the entropy approach, and finally GCMs were ranked based on the entropy weighted TOPSIS method. The result showed that CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 ranked 1st, and therefore was selected as the best alternative selection in precipitation simulation during the period of 1960-2005 over the study area. BNU-ESM ranked the last and was the worst alt ernative selection. The result was quitecomparable with the traditional method of the rank score. Compared with the observations during the period of 2006 to 2015, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 model also performed the best and BNU-ESM performed the worst in predicting the precipitation for the same period. Thus, it was concluded that the TOPSIS method could be applied in the similar studies since it has arigorous theoretical basis, no requirement for data sample size, no loss of information in the calculation process, and easy to calculate.
    2020,18(2):22-30, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Based on meteorological data of 17 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2012 in Haihe River Basin, the panel data model was used to analyze the variatio n trend and regressio nrelationship between panev aporation and other climate variables such as relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, average temperature and diurnal temperature range. This paper was focused on analyzing the influencing factors of the " evapor ation parado x" in the Haihe River Basin, and exploring the feasibility of the panel data model for the study of w ater and heat balance and climate chang e. The r esults showed t hat during the period from 1960 to 2012, pan ev apo ratio n show ed a significant decrease at t he rate o f 221 89 mm/ ( 10a) and aver age t em perat ur e in2 cr eased at a rate o f 01 27 e / ( 10a) , r espectiv ely. There w as a phenomeno n o f evapor ation paradox exist in t he basin. Based on the Unit Root test, H ausman test and F2test, the results showed that t he variable coefficient of the fix ed effect mo del was mor e suitable fo r mo deling and analy sis o f pan evapor ation and o ther meteoro lo gical fact ors in the Haihe River Basin. From the per2 spect ive of sing le facto r reg ressio n, the co ntribut ion of sunshine hours to the pan ev apo ration w as the larg est, fo llow ed by rela2 tive humidit y, diur nal temper ature rang e, w ind speed and av erag e temper ature. The full factor reg ression analysis show ed t hat the pan evapor ation w as negatively co rr elated w ith relativ e humidity, and was po sitiv ely co rrelated w ith sunshine hours, av erag e temper atur e, diurnal temperatur e range and w ind speed. In t erms of fit ting effects of the averag e temper atur e and diur na l tem2 peratur e r ang e respect ively, the av erag e t emperat ur e was mor e suit able for the model fit ting. Comparing the reg ression r esults of aver age temperature and sunshine hours, the g lo bal dimming contributed mor e to the change in pan ev apo ration than global warming.
    2020,18(2):31-43, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In or der t o understand the r esponse of H aihe Riv er Basin ( H RB) to ex tr eme climate events in the context of global warming, climate va riables ( t emperatur e and precipit ation) fr om 1961 to 2016 wer e used. The RClimDex model, M2K tr end test and Max2St able model, and the climate ext remes of H RB w as modeled and analyzed. The spatial and tempor al distribut ion and variatio n char acteristics of temper ature and pr ecipitation extr emes in HRB wer e studied. T he results showed that TXx displayed a decreasing t rend fr om north t o south with a r ang e of 30240 e , of w hich 36240 e account ed for most areas in the H RB. T Xx ex hibited a decreasing trend in the south and increasing t rend in the north. T he pr ecipitatio n extr eme value RX1day show ed a decreasing t rend fr om southeast to northw est with a r ange of 502100 mm of w hich 60290 mm occupied most ar eas. The o verall RX1day show ed a downw ard tr end amo ng which the Circum2Bohai Sea Reg io n had the lar gest downwar d tr end. The GEV model fitting results showed that the t em perat ur e ex tr emes w ere mainly affected by latitude and elevat ion, and decr eased w ith the in2 cr ease of latit ude and elevat ion and the variatio n fluctuation was st rong er in the no rth compa red south in the H RB. The ex tr eme value of pr ecipit ation RX1da y w as gr eat ly affected by the altit ude and lo ng itude, w hich w as mainly represented by the spatial distribut ion that decr eased w ith the increase o f altitude, followed by the spat ial distributio n that incr eased fr om w est to east with the chang e of long itude. Based o n the Q2Q per centile g raph, no n2parametric ex tr eme value co efficient H, GEV and Max2Stable par ameters, and the determinat ion co ef ficient R2 of the intensity scatt er plot for the r ecurrence perio d, it w as determined that the Max2Stable mo del co uld well simulate the climate extr emes in t he H RB and GEV had the same effect. Climate ex tremes T Xx and RX1day wer e mainly affected by latitude, lo ng itude, and altitude, but the additio n of distance from the co ast could only o pt i2 mized the establishment of the TXx model. The spatial distribution of temper ature ex tremes TXx once in 2 years, 10 y ears, 50 years, and 100 y ea rs showed an incr easing dist ributio n pattern fr om nort heast to southw est, and the high2v alue areas w ere dis2 tributed in most o f the so uthw est, w ith the hig hest temper atur e r eaching 40244 e . The spatial distributio n of extr eme ra infall values TX1day once in 2 y ears, 10 y ears, 50 years, and 100 years w as mainly affected by latitude, fo llow ed by lo ng itude and alt i2 tude. All of them showed a decr ease from the southwest to the no rth, and the high value areas w ere distribut ed in the south2 w est. Cent rally, the maximum precipitat ion w as 802200 mm.
    2020,18(2):44-61, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Since the end of the tw entiet h centur y, the co ncept of virtual w ater is r aised, the basic theory , calculation methods and case studies both at home and abro ad has been booming, containing virtual w ater content has been est ablished gr adually , virtual water trade, virtual w ater flow , w ater balance, w ater footprint and other economic and social manag ement o f water resources of the concept of theor etical fr amew or k, become the important method of water cy cle in the eco nomic and so cial evo lutio n. System2 atica lly in t his paper o n the co ncept and characterist ics of virtual w ater analysis, the emerg ence and development of the theo ry of virtual w ater, expounds the current research pr og ress of v irtual w ater and virtual water theo ry, analyzes the application pr ospect in w ater r eso ur ces manag ement , put fo rw ard the applied to the three scientif ic idea of ag ricultura l water resources management, to pro vide the reference t o the research of v irtual water theo ry and applicatio n
    2020,18(2):62-69, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The wat er supply safety g roundw ater source a rea is of g reat significance fo r ensuring r esidentc s safe w ater use and pr otecting gr oundw at er. Rational div isio n o f gr oundwater so urce a rea pr otectio n zone plays an im po rtant ro le in making full use of w ater so ur ce and water quality pr otectio n. Taking the g ro undw ater so urce of Ganhezi as the calculatio n backgr ound, the gr oundwat er flow mo del of the wat er source area w as established by numerical simulatio n. Based on Mo rris method, the influ2 ence o f permeabilit y coefficient and effective por osity on particle t racking tr ace leng th w ere analy zed lo ca lly and g lobally . Using Ar cMap, the primar y and tw o2level gr oundwater source protected areas wer e div ided for particle tr acking t race lengths and calculated acco rding to lo ca l and g lo ba l sensitiv ity . T his w as the basis for multiparty coo rdinat ion and final recog nition of the scope of protected a reas accor ding to the local actual situation in the futur e. The influence of differ ent methods and differ ent influence facto rs on the simulation results of the area o f the pro tected ar ea wer e also analyzed. T he results show ed that the relat ionship betw een global sensitiv ity and lo cal sensitiv ity w as not a simple linear r elatio nship, w hile under the same conditio ns, the effect of effective po ro sity o n particle tr acking trace length and pro tect ion area was g reater than t hat o f permeability co efficient . Acco rd2 ing to the local and global sensitivit y, the area size relat ionship of primar y and t wo g roundw ater source pr otected areas w ere: Lo2 cal sensitiv ity ( parameter was permeability coefficient) > Global sensitivity> Local sensitivity ( parameter w as effective poro sity) .
    2020,18(2):70-78, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The research on the optimal allocatio n o f water resources under the contr ol of w ater qualit y and quantity is the basic suppo rt fo r im plementing the po licy of "w ater saving prio rit y" in the new era, ensuring r egio na l w ater security and promo ting the sustainable ut ilization o f w ater r eso urces. Aiming the coex isting o f w ater shortages in bo th resources and eng ineering in No rth China, Chang le County w as t aken as a case study. The quantity / quality2dual2co ntr ol2based mo dels for o pt imal reg io nal al2 locatio n o f water resour ces w ere established by combining a WEAP model w ith conventio nal theor y and methods for allocatio n of wat er resources, accor ding to reg io nal water demand, t otal quantit y contro l, and po llut ion co nt rol requirements in wat er func2 tional zones, to co ordinate domestic, pr oduction, and ecolog ical water usag e. Imply ing AH P, entro py w eig ht method and AH P2 entr opy w eig ht co upling method, the allocatio n benefits o f plans under different contexts w ere examined, and the best allocatio n plan w as selected. Results show ed that in the futur e planning years, the g uaranteed rate of w ater supply w as 50% and 95% , re2 spect ively, for irrig ation and urban. The scenario B4 combining the w at er reso ur ce development based on contr olling t otal water co nsumpt ion, str eng thening water2saving practices in industries, water pollutio n contro l, and r eusing mo re reclaimed water, a2 chieved the g reatest compr ehensive benefits. Compared to the current year, the w ater demand o f all sectors cloud met the annual GDP incr eased by 701 901 billio n y uan and the utilizat ion rate o f the reclaimed w astew ater accounted fo r 25% .
    2020,18(2):79-85, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In or der t o ident ify the occurr ence of dro ug ht in the North2So uth t ransitio nal zo ne ( Qinling2Dabashan) of China, t his paper used monthly precipitat ion and mean temperature of 32 meteor olog ical stations f rom 1960 to 2015 to calculate the monthly dr ought in the study ar ea. T he met eo ro lo gical dro ug ht index CI and the cumulat ive anomaly method based on the principle of met eo ro lo gical dr ought classif ication w ere used to analyze the dro ug ht chang es in the No rth2South tr ansitional zo ne of China. The r esults show ed that the droug ht intensity , dur atio n and frequency of different levels o f dro ug ht incr eased wit h time, and the lig ht drought accounted fo r the most in all lev els of dro ug ht, w hich w as 551 6% . The occurrence o f dr ought had a seasonal pat2 ter n. The intensity o f spring dro ug ht w as t he lar gest and the dur ation was lo ng . T he summer dro ug ht w as the most likely to oc2 cur. The frequency of autumn dro ug ht generally increased first and then decr eased, reaching max imum in t he 1990s. The dur a2 tion of w inter dro ug ht was relativ ely short compar ed to ot her seasons. In terms of spatia l change, the northern part o f t he study area was r elativ ely dr y, and the so ut h w as relativ ely humid, the Wudu area and the Henan reg ion w as the airdest, w her eas the so uther n part of Gansu w as the wettest reg io n in the entire study area.
    2020,18(2):86-92, DOI:
    Abstract:
    This study applied the thr ee methods such as minimum smoo thing metho d, hy drog raph separatio n pro gr am method and dig ita l filter method to calculate baseflow using daily o bser ved runoff data from 1963 to 2017 at Pingt ang Station in Chengbi River Basin. T he results indicated that the dig ital filter metho d exhibited better perfo rmance than the minimum smo othing meth2 o d and hy dr og raph separat ion pr og ram method. The value of the err or ev aluatio n index es including t he Nash2Sutcliffe efficiency co efficient was 01 930 and the av erage relativ e err or w as 21 406% , respect ively. The results also demo nstr ated that the Boug hto n2 Chapman filter metho d had the hig hest simulatio n accuracy. In respect o f statistical cha racteristics, three kinds of metho ds had certain identificatio n ability in different year levels. T heir separatio n results appea red the same and stable fluctuat ion tr end at interdecadal scale. The dev iatio n deg ree o f the hy dr og raph separ atio n pr og ram metho d was smaller than that o f the minimum smo othing metho d and dig ital filter method. In terms o f discharg e hydrog ra ph, the perfo rmance o f the three methods was quit e discr epant in flood seaso n but relatively clo se in non2flood seaso n. The simulation results of the dig ital filter methods wer e smo other com par ed with t he o ther tw o ty pes of met ho ds. Part icularly, Bo ug hton2Chapman filter method in the dig ita l filter met ho d w as co nsistent w ith the hy steresis char acteristics of baseflow . In conclusion, t he Boug hto n2Chapman f ilter method w as more suitable in the division of Cheng bi Riv er baseflow .
    2020,18(2):93-98, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In or der to str eng then the planning and management o f sustainable w ater resource utilization, this paper used the w ater eco log ical foot print calculatio n model to analyze the changes of water ecolog ical foo tprint and the relev ant influencing factors based o n LMDI decomposition metho d f rom 2000 to 2016 in Chengdu, City . T he result show ed that the ecolog ical foot print of total water resources in Chengdu has an upw ard trend w it h a decline after the y ear 2012. Agricultural w ater accounted for the highest pro po rtio n in t he entire water str ucture and the highest ecolog ical foo tprint; follow ed by indust rial, domestic, and ecolog2 ical wat er. T he ecolog ical w ater carry ing capacity o f Chengdu firstly show ed an increase in trend w hile a decrease f rom 2000 to 2016. The eco lo gica l w ater def icit and the w ater r eso ur ces load index increased y ear by year, w her eas the ecolog ical w ater foo t2 print of 10, 000 yuan GDP decr eased y ear by year. It was illust rated that Chengdu has a hig h deg ree and high efficiency o f w ater resource utilizat ion. H ow ever, its development potential was small, and the pressure on w ater supply was hug e. From t he struc2 tur al analy sis of the interfering factors, economic facto rs play a leading ro le, and the inhibitor y effect of structural elements has no t yet appear ed. Besides, the promo tio n of demo gr aphic factors w as not sig nificant, while the inhibitio n o f techno lo gical ele2 ments was sig nificant .
    2020,18(2):99-106, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Taking Ying qiu Tow n of Shandong Pro vince as the research object, t he SWM M so ftwa re was used to combine the to2 pog raphy and land use status of the township to r ationalize the study ar ea. The r ainfall mo del w as desig ned accor ding to the rainstorm intensity fo rmula of Weifang City, and by com pleting the setting of the determined and uncertain parameters. T he model was calibrated by the uncertain par ameters based o n the runo ff coefficient method. . Finally , the stabilit y of the calibrated ideal solution set w as verified by using multiple fields o f rainfall. Simultaneously , the low2impact development o f the integ rated rainw ater stor age and utilizatio n sy st em w ere combined in the study area. The par ameters of low2 impact develo pment measur es ( LID) w ere set, and finally, the simulation of w ater quantity and quality in the study ar ea w it h o r w ithout low2impact develop2 ment facilities in different retur n periods ( one year, three years, ten y ears) w ere completed. The results showed that LID meas2 ures have significant contro l effects on total runo ff, r unoff coefficient, peak time, peak discharg e and TSS dischar ge lo ad. Mor eo2 v er, t he effect of LID measures o n surface runoff delay was mo re obvio us in r ainfall scenario s w ith smaller rainfall retur n period.
    2020,18(2):107-113, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In t his paper, a new t ype of ridg e2shaped co nstr ucted w etland w hich combines surface flow and ho rizontal subsurface flow w as proposed. The pro po sed wetland had simple str ucture, low co nstr uction and operating cost, less human interference and go od po llution remov al effect. T he combination of surface flow and subsurface flow pr ov ided an aero bic and anaerobic alter nating env iro nment for the entir e w etland. The performance of the proposed wetland was compared with a traditional horizontal subsurface flow wetland. The comparison results showed that the removal rates of BOD ( biochemical ox ygen demand) , T N ( t otal nitr ogen) , and T P ( tota l phospho rus) in the ridge2shaped w etland in2 creased up to 201 3% , 171 0% , and 91 1% , respectively . The pr oposed w et land structure co uld be w idely applied for t reatment of rur al and urban domest ic sew age pollutio n o r ag ricultural po int and no npo int so ur ce water po llut ion.
    2020,18(2):114-125, DOI:
    Abstract:
    "Environmental quality st andards fo r surface water" ( GB 383822002) is the main basis for the monito ring and ev alua2 tion of curr ent water qualit y for M iddle Ro ut e o f So ut h2to2Nort h Water Tr ansfer Pro ject, but some o f the indicato rs in t his standard are no t co nnected w ith " Standards fo r drinking water quality "( GB 574922006) and "Water Quality Standa rd fo r Urban Water Supply" ( GB 574922006) . The w ater quality info rmation o f t he w ater supplier and the water user canno t be fully shar ed. By comparing the similarities and differences of the w ater quality indicators and the co ncentration limits amo ng t he three stand2 ar ds, and combined w ith t he water qua lity char acteristics of the Middle Route of South2 to2North Water Tr ansfer Project , the water qualit y standard o f the pr oject w as formulated fr om the perspective o f w ater quality standar d connectio n and strict contr ol of w ater quality. Based on the "Env iro nmental qualit y standar ds for surface w ater" ( GB 383822002) , t he co ncentration limits of 21 indicato rs such as ammonia nitro gen and fecal colifo rms were r educed, the concentr ation limits o f 8 indicat ors such as pH ar e retained, the co ncentrat ion limits of to tal nitro gen index w as co nfirmed as 2 mg/ L, and tur bidity, chloro phy ll2a, alg ae density three indicato rs w ere supplemented.
    2020,18(2):126-134, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In recent years, Yong ding River ex hibited a sharp decrease in w ater quantity , a trend o f continuous deteriorat ion of the water enviro nment, and serious damage to ecolog ical env ir onment due to the int ensified influence of human act ivities. Under t his backgr ound, t her e is an ur gent need of an eco lo gical reconstructio n pro ject and the determination of ecolog ical water replenish2 ment mode in the Yo ng ding Riv er. I n or der t o ex plo re the influence o f multi2w ater source eco log ical r eplenishment mode fo r the ev olut ion of riv er water qua lit y and riv erbank per colation water qua lit y, this study conducted a simulat ion ex periment to ex plor e the influence of flow rate, tem per at ur e and soil per colation on reclaimed w ater r eplenishment water qualit y. T he r esults show ed that the incr ease in flow velo city w as beneficial to the deg radation of pollutants. Compared with hig h temper atur e, the deg rada2 tion ca pacity o f po llutants at low temper atur e w as significantly bett er than that at hig h temperatur e, indicating that low temper2 atur e w as beneficial to the improv ement o f reclaimed water quality to some ex tent. Alt ho ug h water qualit y index es of riverbank leachat e improv ed to some ex tent, but the water passing thro ug h the soil was slightly eut ro phicatio n due to t he agg r eg atio n and adsor pt ion o f riv er bot tom sediments. The f ina l results show ed that the f low v elo city had the g reatest influence on the quality in2 dex o f reg ener ated w ater.
    2020,18(2):135-143, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Since t he im poundment o f the T hree Gorg es Reserv oir, the displacement2t ime curve of many landslides has shown a step chang e, w hich makes it difficult to identify the steady state and seriously affects the landslide early w arning and prediction. The chair2sha ped so il landslide is particularly o bv ious. T aking the Bazimen landslide as an ex ample, this paper studied the land2 slide in the r eser voir w ater throug h multiple field geo log ical sur vey s, long2term o n2sit e inspectio ns, GPS displacement monito2 ring data o bt ained for mo re than 10 years and additional 2 y ea rs o f fully automat ic mo nitoring data. Defo rmatio n law under fluc2 tuatio ns and rainfall conditions wer e studied in depth. The results showed that during the decline of r eser voir w ater lev el, espe2 cially after the w ater level dro pped by 15 m, it decr eased fr om 160 m to 145 m, and the landslide bo dy deformat ion would have a lag of about 20 d. T he landslide defo rmation curve suddenly jumped and the daily displacement reached 11 5 mm to 21 2 mm. When the rainfall occurr ed mor e than 80 mm it o bv io usly induced the acceler atio n o f the slo pe. During the escalation of the res2 er voir w ater level, the reserv oir water lev el was ar ound 175 m and t he monthly displacement hav e a neg ative value of 5 to 10 mm. When rainfall w as abo ut 100 mm, it failed to induce the acceler at ion of the slope. But o nce the r ainfall was abo ve 200 mm, the displacement speed of the landslide body increased significantly. After the rainfall was induced, the landslide body acceler2 ated t o a normal level after 527 day s of rain. Under the cyclical action of periodic rainfall and r eser vo ir water level fluctuatio n, the landslide body w as repeatedly subjected to the " push2pull" effect, resulting in the step2time curv e o f the landslidec s displace2 ment2time curv e. The chair2 like soil landslide w as a special type of landslide. The increased and decrease of the r eser vo ir w ater level was the main factor of the current defo rmatio n of the Bazimen landslide, and the rainfall has promo ted the deformat ion of the landslide. Rest ricted by the st ruct ur al characteristics of the chair and other slo pes, the slope w ould be repeatedly defo rmed under the elevation of the reserv oir wat er lev el, but it w as difficult to cause rapid over all damag e.
    2020,18(2):144-151, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Thro ug h the geochemical surv ey and the sampling o f 1B 250 000 tar get areas, the soil g eochemica l backg round v alues and refer ence values of 22 indicators in surface and deep soils w ere obtained to study the distributio n characteristics in the so utheastern part o f Fuyang City. Soil qualit y ev aluatio n was calculated according to the corresponding specificatio ns. The re2 sults show ed that the so il reference v alues o f 8 elements ( indicators) such as N, Mn, I and Cr w ere slightly hig her, w hile 8 ele2 ments such as P, M gO, S and Cd ( indicato rs) w ere lower com par ed with the so il r eference va lue o f the neighboring area ( H uai2 bei2Bozho u) . T he soil backg ro und values of N, Co rg , and Mn wer e hig her than those of the adjacent ar ea. T he so il backg ro und values of 8 elements ( indicato rs) such as P, CaO, MgO and S wer e low er than the adjacent ar eas. Soil nutrients wer e mainly at a medium level, w hile the soil env iro nmental quality was clean and only a small amo unt o f slig ht ly polluted soil ex isted in t he stud2 y area. The g eochemical index w hich affect ing the soil env iro nment w as Cd. T he comprehensive evaluat ion of so il quality in the area w as high quality g rade, accounting fo r 761 33% of the to tal area in the study area, followed by g oo d g rade, accounting for 231 67% of the to tal ar ea o f the study a rea. Therefor e, the sugg estions o n the qualit at ive utilizatio n of land resources wer e put forw ar d.
    2020,18(2):152-158, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In or der t o reduce the w ork amo unt of engineering and to facilitat e the safe and efficient operatio n o f the w ater diver2 sio n sy st em, a scheme of a por ous elastic membr ane inside the surg e tank w as proposed. This measure enabled to reduce the surg e amplitude and ra pidly damping w ater level fluctuatio ns. The "U"2shaped water co lumn o scillatio n model w as used for the physical model test. The results show ed that t he sur ge reduction effect was inversely pr oportional to the open area of the por ous elastic membr ane and was pr oportional to the number o f layers of po rous elastic membrane. In order to ex plain the mechanism of energ y dissipatio n effect, CFD numerical simulat ions w ere carried o ut to analyze the flow field char acteristics of the surg e t ank. The study show ed that the po ro us elastic membr ane was a rrang ed to distur b the flow field inside the surg e tank, g enerat ing vor2 tex , ro lling and flow , and incr easing t he head loss when the water fluctuated. Under the combined action, the energ y of the w ater in the surg e tank could be dissipated, and the surg e amplitude in the sur ge t ank could be quickly damped. T he results obtained by numerical simulatio n had g ood agr eement compar ed to the physical mo del. A po rous elastic membrane placed inside the surg e tank co uld be an o ption instead of the r eco nstr uction of the w ater conveyance system for the hy dr opow er stat ion in which the in2 stalled capacity could be increased by adding discharg e
    2020,18(2):159-176, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In o rder to solve the problems of turbulent flow patter n in pr e2sedimentation tank of intake pum ping station, larg e ar ea of reflux zone and vo rtices in aeration tank and for eba y. Based on the f inite vo lume method of thr ee2dimensional incom pr essible fluid and standard k2E tur bulence model, t he numerical simulatio n of pre2sedimentat ion tank, aeratio n tank and forebay o f an in2 take pumping statio n w as carried o ut by using ANSYS CFX so ftwa re. T he aeration t ank and forebay ar e numerically simulat ed, and the flow pattern, v elocity and pressur e co nto ur of the selected cr oss2section of the intake pumping statio n ar e analyzed. T he pumping statio n is optimized by setting fillets at the corridor cor ner o f the aerat ion tank, U2shaped diversio n wa ll and qua rter arc diversion wall in the co rridor cor ner of the o rig inal scheme. Splayed div ersion piers are set in the fo rebay and diversion piers are set betw een pump units. Com par ed w ith the original scheme, the phenomenon o f flow separat ion and reflux in the co rridor co rner of the orig inal scheme has been impr oved. The lar ge2scale reflux area in the aer atio n tank and the fo rebay disappears, and ther e is no obvio us bad flow patter n in t he over all flow o f pumping station. The research r esults have certain g uiding sig nificance for o pt imizing the inter nal w ater flow, prev enting sediment sedimentatio n, and im pr oving the st abilit y, efficiency and safety of pumping statio ns.
    2020,18(2):177-183, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In or der to optimize the topolog y of t he water delivery netw ork, this paper quantified the invulner abilit y o f the netw or k and established a topolo gy optimizatio n m odel for the w ater netw or k w ith the objective o f maximizing the invulnerability o f the netw or k. Firstly , the impo rtance of the no de str ucture w as derived from the centr al degr ee and the deg ree of substitutability o f the location of the node based o n the to po lo gy o f the w ater transpo rt netw o rk, and then the netw o rk invulnerability was charac2 terized. Seco ndly, the no n2cr ossing of edg es in a netw o rk as co nstr aints considering the number of co nnectable edges, and the op2 tim izat ion model w ith the maximization of netwo rk invulnerability w as established. Finally , combined w ith an exam ple of w ater deliver y netw o rk, the g enet ic a lgo rithm w as applied to solv e the m odel and the o ptimal to po lo gy of the w ater deliver y netw or k was sought. T he calculatio n results showed t hat the degr ee o f discreteness of the node str uctural impo rtance in the netw ork w as reduced and the netw ork invulner ability was g reatly impr oved compared to w itho ut optimization. T his indicated that the mo del co uld pr ovide a refer ence for so lv ing the pr oblem o f topolo gy optimizatio n o f the w ater delivery netw o rk.
    2020,18(2):184-190, DOI:
    Abstract:
    The ratio of plastic energ y consumptio n to t otal deformat ion ener gy based on the incremental dynamic analysis method ( IDA) w as used as t he str uctural performance index . T he three2lev el seismic damage classificatio n of gr avit y dam seismic per2 fo rmance ev aluatio n and t he failure deg ree div ision under tw o limit states wer e pro posed. The IDA cur ve w as made and com2 bined w ith the quantile analysis and fr agilit y analy sis t o evaluate the seismic performance of the gr avity dam. Taking the Jing2 niang Lake g ravity dam as an ex ample, a series o f nonlinea r analyses wer e carried out. The results showed that the peak g ro und acceler atio n ( PGA) of each limit state in the IDA curve o f the quantile analy sis was lar ger t han the peak g ro und acceler atio n of the designed earthquake, which satisfied the gr avit y and the lev el of functional suppo rt and safety assur ance of the dam. Under the fr agility analy sis, 651 92% probability of the 11 5 times desig n earthquake was in the no rmal use stag e and could a 100% safety guar antee. The results show ed that the g ravity dam had a g oo d seismic perfo rmance. The r esults of this study may pro2 v ide a new idea fo r the seismic performance design and safety risk assessment o f gr avit y dams.
    2020,18(2):191-198, DOI:
    Abstract:
    Gro undw ater o verex plo itatio n has v ast impo rtance in t he North China Plain. The lo ng2term o verex ploitatio n of gr oundwat er has br ought a g reat thr eat to the w ater resources security of No rth China, especially Beijing , Tianjin and Hebei. This paper firstly analy zed the status and reasons fo r g roundw ater ov erex ploitatio n in terms of gr oundw ater vo lume, g roundw a2 ter lev el and ov er2draft area, and the related pr oblems including resources, eco log y and geo log y. T hen sever al g roundw ater over2 ex ploitatio n actio ns w ere intr oduced and summarized and pr elim inar y results w ere achiev ed. Mo reov er, strateg ic countermeas2 ures and main measures for g r oundwater over explo itation in No rth China w ere intro duced. Finally, some cr ucial questions wer e discussed abo ut g r oundwater ov erex ploitat ion based on the authorcs practical wo rk. In addition, some sug gestio ns and r ationale wer e pr oposed fo r the resto ratio n based o n cr ucial questions
    2020,18(2):199-210, DOI:
    Abstract:
    China has a coastline of 18, 000 kilomet ers, rich in marine resour ces. Desalination is the fundamenta l way t o so lv e w a2 ter sho rtag es and increase fr eshw ater resources. This pa per summa rized the utilizatio n of seawater desa linatio n, deeply ex plo red the facto rs that restricted the dev elo pment of desalination, and analyzed the utilizatio n pro spects of desalinat ed seaw ater. Based on the analysis of the current status and ex periences of int ernational desalinatio n and seaw ater ut ilization in Zhoushan, Zhejiang , this study put forw ard the co untermeasures for the development o f seaw ater desalinat ion in China. It was sug g ested t o increase technical input, develo ped the mo del o f go vernment, industr y, and resea rch, to r educe economic co sts, to reasonably plan and build seaw ater desalinatio n projects. T he pr ojects may increase the utilizatio n of pr oduction capacity, strengthen the compr ehen2 siv e utilizatio n of seawater, r educing the env iro nmental po llut ion, str eng then policy suppo rt, improv ed laws and r egulat ions, and co nt inuously promo ted the develo pment of seaw ater desalinatio n industr y.
    2020,18(2):211-217, DOI:
    Abstract:
    In o r der to explor e t he effect o f different irrigat ion quo tas o n so il mo istur e distributio n o f m aize under drip irrig atio n on mulch pebbly sandy soil, the effect of 301 0 mm, 3 71 5 mm , 451 0 m m, 521 5 m m, and 601 0 m m irrigat ion quo tas on so il mo isture distributio n w ere analy zed by field plot com pariso n test m ethod. T he results show ed that the chang e pro cess o f t he co nto ur distributio n of so il w a ter content in the soil pro file w as the ellipse w ith t he long ax is in t he v ertical dir ect ion and t he ellipse w ith the long ax is in the horizontal dir ectio n2unimo da l cur ve. After 24 hours of irriga tio n, the so il mo istur e co nt ent reached a re lativ ely stable st ate, and the soil mo istur e co ntent w ith in 25 cm o f the so il surface w as sig nificantly low er t han that in 0 ho urs after irrigat ion. The so il mo istur e co nt ent w as the hig hest at a depth o f 40 cm. The chang ing t rend o f so il w ater co nt ent in differ ent irrig atio n quotas w as t he same, w hile the co nto ur map of soil w ater content w as closer to an ellipse w ith the incr ease o f irrig atio n quo ta. The increased rang e o f so il w ater co ntent in the v ert ical directio n and horizo nt al dir ec2 tion w as as fo llows: m iddle> low er> upper and left > m iddle> rig ht, r espectively. T he soil mo istur e co ntent at differ ent depths tr eated w ith a 521 5 mm irriga tio n quo ta w as closer to t he fie ld m oist ur e retentio n rate. T he ex perimental analysis show ed that 521 5 mm irrig atio n quot a tr eatment w as the best irrigat ion w ater tr eatment fo r w ater distributio n in the pebbly sa ndy soil ar ea.
    2020,18(2):218-224, DOI:
    Abstract:
    There is a t ypical str atified st ructur e in the lower r eaches of the Yellow Riv er. Different pa rts of the riv er have differ2 ent anti2scourability. The "clay layer" w ith strong ant i2sco ur ability has a signif icant impact on the riv er r eg ime. A flume test of sta rting erosio n o f clay was carried out based on the cohesiv e so il near H uayuanko u in the lower reaches o f the Yellow Riv er. The v ariat ion o f starting shea r st ress w ith dr y density w as analy zed, and the r elationship betw een dry densit y, w ater content and deposition durat ion was established. The relationship betw een starting shear str ess and ero sion coefficient of cohesive so il w as also fitted. The results showed that the starting shear str ess o f co hesive soil increased w ith the increase of dry density, and the relat ionship betw een them was pow er functio n. When the siltatio n duratio n w as sho rt, the dry density ( wat er content) of cohe2 siv e so il increased ( decreased) w ith the increase o f t he silt ation duration, and the relatio nship betw een them w as log arit hmic function ( exponent ial function) . The ero sion coefficient of cohesive soil decr eased w ith the incr ease o f starting shear stress, and the r elationship between them was pow er function. Simultaneously , it w as found that the starting shear stress of cohesive so il relat ed to t he cohesive co ntent, and under the same dry density conditio n, the higher the cohesive co nt ent was the gr eater the sta rting shear str ess. The erosion co efficient of cohesiv e so il w as related to the cohesiv e content and str ucture of the so il. T he higher the cohesive content, the smaller the ero sion coefficient, and the str onger the anti- sco ur abilit y.
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      2017,15(2):1-8, DOI:
      Abstract:
      The Middle Route of South to North Water Diversion Project (MRP) has long canals, involves many areas and hydraulic structures, transfers water by a huge amount, and has various working conditions. These all bring great difficulties to the regulation, control, and management of the project. The technical problem of the engineering lies in the fact that the scientific and mechanism problems behind it are not fully revealed and solved, including multi-dimensional equilibrium control mechanism of multiple water sources under changing conditions, multi-process coupling mechanism of water quantity and water quality, emergency scheduling model for multi-material water pollution, hydraulic response mechanism and control of open channel under multi-gate joint application. In order to establish a complete set of technical system to support its scheduling, this paper summarizes the existing research on the five key points of forecast, scheduling, simulation, control, and evaluation. And on the basis of summarizing the previous research, the key technologies awaiting urgent research are explained in detail, including forecast and scheduling in water source areas and water-receiving areas, multi-phase simulation of water pollution, water quality and water quality control, automatic control technology, evaluation technology, and platform construction. Finally, the paper discusses the scientific problems to be solved in order to realize the intelligent regulation and emergency regulation for the MRP and makes a summary of the research.
      2015,13(5):980-984, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Based on the T OE theor et ical fr amewo rk ( T echnolo gy2 Or ganizatio n2Environment) and the specific situation of smart water co nstr uction, the TOE framew ork w hich affects smart water constructio n was developed, and the effect s of each impact facto r o n the construction and development o f smar t w ater wer e analyzed from the technical, o rg anizat ional, and env iro nmental dimensions. T he technical dimensio n factors include the technica l superio rity, complex it y, compatibility , and o bser vability. T he org anizational dimension factor s include the const ruction necessity, demand urg ency , and co nstr uction feasibility . The envir on2 mental dimension factor s include the support sy st em, standard system, and info rmation securit y. On the basis, analyt ic hierarchy pr ocess ( AH P) w as used to determine the pr ior ity of the impact facto rs. The results showed that the or ganizatio nal dimensio n facto rs and technical dimension fact ors have hig h impacts on smart water construction w ith the weig ht o f 49% and 31% o ver the index system respect ively. Amo ng the impact factor s, const ruct ion necessity has the hig hest weig ht ( 25%) , follow ed by technical super io rit y ( 16%) , demand urg ency ( 12%) , and construction feasibility ( 12%) . The r esear ch pr ov ides an effectiv ely new metho d fo r the quantitative analy sis of impact factor s of smar t w ater const ruct ion, and the evaluation r esult s can prov ide import ant r eference fo r decision2making of w ater secto r and develo pment of w ater business.
      2014,12(1):82-87, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Compared with the traditional determined hydrologic forecast, hydrologic ensemble forecast contains various uncertainties in the hydrologic forecast processes. Therefore, the accuracy and validity of hydrologic forecast have been improved theoretically. Meanwhile, the cognitive and predictive capabilities of the events such as storm, flood, and drought have been enhanced in the practical applications. The hydrologic ensemble forecast can provide more accurate and useful information in flood control, drought relief, and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we firstly reviewed the history of hydrologic ensemble forecast, and then we summarized the research progresses in theory, methods, as well as the applications and operational hydrologic ensemble forecast. We focused on two research aspects of the pre-processing and post-processing issues in an effort to provide a useful platform for the development of hydrologic ensemble prediction. The perspectives and recommendations on this subject were provided. This paper is of important significance in the future development of hydrologic ensemble forecast research.
      2014,12(2):107-110, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Accurate and rapid determination of the distribution of contaminants is the main task for the investigation work of a contaminated site. As a new surveying tool for contaminated sites, direct push technology can be used for soil sample collection in the vadoze zone and aquifer, detection of aquifer parameters, and determination of pollutants. It has the advantages of fast, accurate, and free of cross-contamination. In this paper, the development and research progress of direct push technology was introduced, and the technology innovation was discussed.
      2014,12(2):20-24, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the inputs and outputs of the complex model and system qualitatively and quantitatively, which can benefit the inspection of model structure, identification of model parameters, and model application. In this paper, Sobol method was applied to evaluate the sensitivity of single parameter and multiple parameters of the model in the Huanren reservoir catchment. The objective functions of sensitivity analysis included the deterministic coefficients and error coefficients of total water, low flow, and high flow. The results showed that the sensitivity of parameters was different under different objective functions, and Sobol method can provide the sensitivity for all parameters and sensitivity between each parameter, which is useful for sensitivity analysis of hydrological models.
      2013(5):121-123, DOI:
      Abstract:
      "National River Linking Project (NRLP)" is a large-scale hydraulic engineering project that aims to reduce the persistent water shortage problems in India. In, this paper, describes the target planning and progress of the NRLPNational River Linking Project, was described, and introduces the program’s management system of this project and water policy in India was introduced. Due to the large scale of the project, it involves involved the deployment and utilization of water resources and utilization inof the many rivers of the South Peninsula, therefore several problems exist in the implementation of the project such as the funding stress, international development of transboundary rivers, and ecological environment. this paper addresses and analyzes the basic problems based on the project’s main benefit goals.
      2013(6):144-147, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis has instructive significance to explore the relationship between environmental protection and economic development and to seek the coordinated development of economy and environment. Based on the analysis of the basic conception of EKC hypothesis, the research progress of the impact factors, theoretical developments, and empirical studies of EKC were illustrated in this paper, and the existing problems of the hypothesis were also discussed. Finally, it was noted that under the international trade conditions, the developing countries should study the clean technology, policy reformation, public education, and environmental law system from the developed countries, which can help them decrease the EKC turn point, flatten EKC curve, and seek for win-win relationship between economy and environment.
      2013(4):128-133, DOI:
      Abstract:
      As a quantitative indicator of drought, drought index plays an important role in the monitoring and forecasting of drought and water resources management, and it is also a useful research tool in the field of hydrology and water resources. Over the last decade, the primary progress in the development and improvement of drought index involved the introduction of evapotranspiration as a factor of the index calculation, which can improve the parameter accuracy in model simulation and combine with the model algorithm of hydrological process. The application of drought index included the inversion and prediction of regional drought, crop yield prediction, forest fire detection, and paleoclimate reconstruction. The development and application of drought index provided an effective tool for regional drought monitoring and water resources management; however, the quantification and comprehensive evaluation of drought index should be considered as research priorities, which can help improve the accuracy and reliability of model monitoring and thus provide new options and technical approaches for rapid monitoring of drought.
      2015,13(6):1025-1030, DOI:
      Abstract:
      With the r apid development o f meso scale numer ical at mospher ic model WRF in r ecent y ears, its application is wider and w ider. In or der to ex plain the mechanism, r eveal the develo pment directio n and pr ov ide refer ence for r elated fields research2 er s, WRF model sy stem is int roduced, it is discussed that the influence o f parameterized phy sical pr ocesses, data assimilatio n and reasonable spat ial scale o n the simulation effect o f WRF model. Related studies have shown that: ( 1) differ ent par ameter2 ized phy sical processes need to be chosen in different reg ion and different time; ( 2) the common data assimilation method is 3DVar data assimilatio n at present, hybr id data assimilatio n may be a better met ho d to impr ove the simulatio n effect of WRF model; ( 3) reasonable spat ial scales need to be cho sen because not the hig her hor izo nt al reso lution, t he better simulat ion effect for a ll research; ( 4) WRF mo del has g oo d simulat ion effect , hig h pr ediction accuracy , there is mo re w ide applicat ion.
      2013(4):124-127, DOI:
      Abstract:
      The analysis of the night minimum flow data in the Districted Metered Area (DMA) of the water distribution system can characterize the real loss of DMA. The high-frequency and high-accuracy measured night flow data were analyzed, which indicated that the night flow data of DMA at different time periods are in normal distribution and the lowest night flow data is close to the real loss of DMA. In this study, the minimum night flow data from 2 AM to 4 AM in the early morning were analyzed based on the confidence level of 95.5% and confidence interval of (m-2d, m+2d).. The results showed that the minimum night flow of DMA after removing the abnormal values characterized by m-2dcan eliminate the effects of error and interference of measured data, and therefore obtain the real loss of DMA. This method can lower the evaluation error of night water demand, and facilitate the in-situ meter flow measurement to assess the DMA leakage level quickly.
      2015,13(2):391-394, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Thro ug h the analysis of t he technique, envir onment, law , and eco nomy in the manag ement and operatio n o f inter2basin water transfer projects abro ad, this paper summar ized the successful ex per ience o f int er2basin w ater tr ansfer pr ojects in the wo rld fr om the aspects of leg islat ion, w ater r ig ht s, water pr ice, unified manag ement o f water resources, investment manag ement of eng ineering const ruct ion, and management o per ation mode, w hich can pro vide t he refer ence fo r the o per ation of inter2basin water transfer pro jects in China.
      2014,12(1):1-6, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Based on the daily data of precipitation and temperature of 30 basic meteorological stations during the period 1956-2010, twelve indices characterizing extreme climate change have been selected to analyze the temporal changes in precipitation and temperature extremes in the Hai River Basin. As per many other parts of the world, the analysis shows an increase in the intensity, frequency and duration of high temperature extremes and a decrease in that of cold extremes. The intensity of short-time precipitation extremes shows an increase and the frequency of heavy precipitation shows a decrease. The consecutive wet days shows a decrease, while the consecutive dry days shows an increase in recent decades, thus the dry pattern has been aggravated in the basin. The annual high temperature extremes and short-time precipitation extremes have begun to frequently occur since 1990s from interdecadal variations, the rainfall of long-duration precipitation events has shown a decrease however. The general warm and dry trend and precipitation concentration will have a negative impact on the agriculture production and water resources development. Meanwhile, the increase of short-time precipitation extremes may exacerbate the risk of local flood disaster in mountainous area as well as urban waterlogging.
      2015,13(6):1065-1068, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Based on the monthly precipitation data of 25 meteorological stations in the Haihe River Basin from 1960 to 2010, the inter 2annual precipitation characteristics in the Haihe River Basin were analyzed using the linear regression and cumulative a 2 nomaly curve methods. T he probability distribution of precipitation was analyzed using the Pearson III curve method, and the spatial variation of precipitation was analyzed using the spatial interpolation method. T he results showed that (1) precipitation in the Haihe River Basin has a slightly decreasing trend in recent 51 years, and the decreasing trend is stable recently; ( 2) there is a trend with more wet years while less dry years in the Haihe River Basin and the trend is increasing; (3) seasonal variation of precipitation is obvious; and (4) precipitation decreases trend from the south to the north.
      2013(5):26-28, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Wetlands and aAtmosphere constantly engaged in the exchange of energy and material constantly, that is , free water surface of wetland and dense vegetation was are in the process of evapotranspirationthrough evapo-transpiration to enter into the atmosphere and a part of water returns to the groundwater as precipitation, thereby increasing the so that water vapour injected into the atmosphere, then formed the rain and returned to the ground, thereby it improved local humidity and precipitation. In this paper, Based on the precipitation data from 1974~2010 of Hengshui Lake and twenty- four24 nearby rRainfall sStations from 1974 to 2010 were used to calculate of periphery , this article figured out the average precipitation of the Hengshui Lake District ,10- km radius affected zone, 10~2010- to 20- km circular affected zone, and 20- to~30- km circular affected zone. It analyzed theThe effects of the wetland of Hengshui Lake on precipitation were analyzed, and the main reasons were investigated based on the change regularity of different affected zone of Hengshui Lake wetland, and explore the main reason through precipitation formation mechanism of precipitation. The result showsed: that the precipitation decreases Hengshui Lake wetland from the near to the distant distance of the Hengshui Lake Wetland, indicating was obviously decreasing, it revealed that Hengshui Lake wetland has an adjustment function the adjustment effects of the wetland onto the climate of surrounding regional climatearea.
      2013(5):78-81, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Static cone penetration test (CPT) as is an in situ test, which is was widely used in the engineering practice. Based on recently research results, thise paper systematically introduced sums up the research and development course in of CPT and summarized the research progress of the, such as instrument development, cone resistance theoretical research of cone resistance, model test, numerical simulation, and engineering application of CPT. Empirical formula of to calculate the soil parameters using CPT on for different industries and different areas were summarized. The paper pointed out that iIt is necessary to fully consider the engineering characteristics of regional soil when using in application of the CPT results. Moreover, It should be point out that the theoretical analysis of excess pore water pressure, analytic solution of cylindrical hole space problem, and numerical analysis simulation for large deformation analysis theory need to be further improved..
      2013(1):1-6, DOI:
      Abstract:
      The instantaneous peak flow (IPF) is the basic information for hydraulic design,construction and management. It also has an important influence on the investment and safety of hydraulic structures. However, the IPF records in Tibet are generally short in length, while mean daily flow (MDF) records are relatively longer. In this study, the IPF records are extended by analyzing the relationship between corresponding IPF and MDF records. The results show that the ratio between IPF and MDF is stable in most of hydrological stations. The relative error between estimated IPF and observed IPF is less than 10%. The results of flood frequency analysis using extended IPF series are more reasonable than that using the measured IPF series. For the stations with limited measured MDF, the HIMS model is used to extend the available MDF. The HIMS model is applied in three representative rivers of Tibet: the Nianchu river, Lhasa river and Niang river. The results show that the model has a good performance in both daily and peak flow simulation. The end year of IPF series in the three representative hydrological stations has been extended from 2000 to 2010 by the simulation results of HIMS and the relationship between IPF and MDF.
      2015,13(3):457-462, DOI:
      Abstract:
      The impacts of human activities and dry climate aggravate the water pollution and eutrophication in the Baiyang Lake. Through the analysis of hydro 2chemical compositions of the water, five indexes[Chla, TN, T P, COD Mn, and SD] , which are re 2 lated to water eutrophication, are selected as evaluation parameters, and the comprehensive nutrition index method is adopted to determine the water eutrophication type. T he results of water quality monitoring data show that the type of water is CNaII, and the lake is in mesotrophic or eutrophic state determined by the comprehensive nutrition index method. The principal component analysis results show that TP is the main factor to cause water pollution in the lake. According to the analysis of diatom and its combination, the diatom in the lake is characterized by the combination of eutrophic species Cyclotellameneghiniana ( 20. 43%) and Cyclostep hanos tholif ormis ( 25. 40%) , which indicates that the lake is in the eutrophication state and water environment is in danger.
      2014,12(1):154-157, DOI:
      Abstract:
      A proposed water transfer tunnel will be excavated with tunnel boring machine (TBM) in the surrounding type-III rock. The shotcrete and reinforced concrete segment serve as the initial support and permanent liner, respectively. The considerable internal and external water pressures are loaded on the liner, with the water head values of 110 m and 200 m, respectively. In this paper, in consideration of the contact relationship between segments, the contact relationship between segment and surrounding structure, and the cooperative working performance of reinforcement bars and concrete, the stress deformation characteristics of the liner under high water pressures are analyzed using the finite element method. The results showed that the external water pressure is the decisive load for the design of tunnel liner, and therefore a simplified model of segment liner design was proposed. The results suggested that it is feasible to use the reinforced concrete segment as tunnel lining under the conditions of the surrounding rock, support, and water pressure shown in the study.
      2014,12(1):69-72, DOI:
      Abstract:
      Based on the high-resolution sporopollen records of the section in the Yudaokou pasture of Weichang County, Hebei Province, the variations of climate and environment since 6000 a B.P. (14C dating is 5.7ka B.P. at the section bottom) in the Yudaokou area of Weichang County were analyzed. The regional features of sporopollen assemblages showed that the paleoclimate in the Yudaokou area experienced seven stages since 6000 a B. P.: cool and slightly wet - cool and dry- warm and slightly wet –warm and wet – warm and slightly wet –warm and wet - cool and slightly dry. Vegetation landscape was mainly coniferous forest - steppe vegetation, which was dominated with Pinus and Artemisia and scattered with a small amount of Betula, Quercus, and other deciduous trees and shrubs in the forest. The paleoclimate change pattern since the Holocene in the study area is similar to that in other regions of China.
      2014,12(1):7-11, DOI:
      Abstract:
      The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of SWAT model to agricultural drought evaluation for regions without or lack of soil moisture data. For this purpose, the SWAT model was applied to simulate the hydrological process in the Bahe watershed of the upper Weihe River. The soil water content was obtained and it was used to calculate the relative soil moisture. The calculated relative soil moisture was regarded as the evaluation index of agricultural drought. The results showed that severe spring droughts occurred in 2001 and 2002 and summer drought occurred in 2003 in the Bahe watershed, which was in accordance with the actual conditions. . Therefore, SWAT model is applicable to agricultural drought evaluation for the area lack of soil moisture data.

    Periodical information

    • Competent Authority:Department of Water Resources of Hebei Procince

    • Sponsored by:Hebei Institute of Water Resources

    • Chief Editor :ZHANG Shuantang

    • Edited and Published by:The Editorial Dept South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science &Technology

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